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Doctor of Nursing Practice

Library and information research strategies and resources for DNP students.

Evidence Based Practice

Evidence Based Practice (EBP) integrates the following 3 factors into the decision-making process for patient care:

  1. Clinical Expertise (the clinician’s cumulated experience, education and clinical skills)
  2. Patient Values (the patient's own personal preferences and unique concerns, expectations, and values)
  3. Best Research Evidence (usually found in clinically relevant research that has been conducted using sound methodology)

Evidence-Based Practice requires new skills of the clinician, including
efficient literature searching, and the application of formal rules of
evidence in evaluating the clinical literature.


1. ASK the question
Construct a well built clinical question derived from a clinical problem or question  that arises from the care of a patient

2. ACQUIRE the evidence
   Select the appropriate resource(s) and conduct a search

3. APPRAISE the evidence
   Appraise that evidence for its validity (closeness to the truth)
   and applicability (usefulness in clinical practice)

4. APPLY: talk with the patient
   Return to the patient -- integrate that evidence with
   clinical expertise, patient preferences and apply it to practice

5. ASSESS the process
   Evaluate your performance with this patient

Levels of Evidence

Adapted from Stillwell, Fineout-Overhold, Melynk, & Williamson (2010).

Evidence Pyramid

Qualitative Research Pyramid